Chapter Quiz
1.  

The process by which cells become specialized is called __________. (p. 403)

apoptosis
totipotency
divergence
differentiation
morphogenesis


2.  

Embryonic tissue that persists in the adult plant is called __________. (p. 403)

sclerenchyma
mesophyll
collenchyma
meristem
parenchyma


3.  

In contrast to the vertebrate blastula, the fruit fly blastula __________. (p. 413)

has differentiated cells
is multinucleate
consists of totipotent cells
has cells that are genomic equivalents.
does not exhibit concentration gradients of cytoplasmic determinants


4.  

A mature cell of a mature plant can often develop into a new mature adult. This demonstrates that these plant cells are _____. (p. 406)

zygotic
differentiated
meristematic
anucleate
totipotent


5.  

In frogs, when an intestinal cell of a tadpole is transferred into an egg whose nucleus has been removed (nuclear transplantation), some of the eggs will develop into normal tadpoles. This demonstrates _____. (p. 407)

that frogs have meristematic cells
that intestinal cells are not differentiated
genomic equivalence
that frogs have large eggs
that these cells could not dedifferentiate


6.  

Your muscle and bone cells are different because _____. (p. 410)

they contain different sets of genes
they are differentiated
they contain different operons
different genes are switched on and off in each type of cell
they contain different histones


7.  

Wilmut and his colleagues dedifferentiated mammalian nuclei by __________. (p. 408)

forcing the cells into the G2 phase of the cell cycle
forcing the cells into the G0 phase of the cell cycle
forcing the cells into the S phase of the cell cycle
forcing the cells into the G1 phase of the cell cycle
thoroughly mixing the contents of mammary gland cells


8.  

In the case of Dolly (the clone), a nucleus from a mammary gland cell of one sheep was put into the enucleated ovum of another sheep, and this cell was then implanted in the uterus of a third sheep. If you consider only the generation that directly preceded Dolly, how many genetic parents does she have? (p. 408)

one
two
three
four
five


9.  

Specific cells that appear undifferentiated under the microscope but are already fated to become muscle cells are called _____. (p. 410)

meristematic cells
bicoids
myocytes
muscle cells
myoblasts


10.  

Gene expression in animals seems to be regulated largely by _____. (p. 410)

controlling gene packing and unpacking
controlling the transcription of genes into mRNA
controlling the translation of mRNA into protein
selectively eliminating certain genes from the genome
selectively breaking down certain proteins so they cannot function


11.  

Which of the following is true of gene regulation in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes? (p. 410)

Gene regulation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes involves the elaborate packing of DNA in chromosomes.
In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes transcription is the usual point at which gene expression is regulated.
Gene regulation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes involves the addition of a cap and a tail to mRNA after transcription.
Gene regulation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes involves lac and trp operons.
Gene regulation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes involves the removal of noncoding portions of RNA from the RNA transcript.


12.  

In humans, the hormone testosterone enters cells and binds to specific proteins, which in turn bind to specific sites on the cells' DNA. These proteins probably act to _____. (p. 410)

help RNA polymerase transcribe certain genes
alter the pattern of DNA splicing
inhibit transcription
unwind the DNA so that its genes can be transcribed
cause mutations in the DNA


13.  

Dioxin, produced as a by-product of various industrial chemical processes, is suspected of causing cancer and birth defects in animals and humans. It apparently acts by entering cells and binding to proteins, altering the pattern of gene expression. The proteins that it affects are probably _____. (p. 410)

water-soluble proteins
DNA polymerase
transcription factors
enhancers
nucleosomes


14.  

Differentiation __________. (p. 410)

requires apoptosis
precedes determination
requires transcription of the ced-9 gene
occurs after morphogenesis
requires the transcription of tissue-specific genes


15.  

Which of the following has the earliest influence on development? (p. 412)

homeotic genes
segmentation genes
induction
cytoplasmic determinants
pair-rule genes


16.  

Cells influence each other's development by a process known as __________. (p. 412)

fating
chimeras
induction
cleavage
apoptosis


17.  

Cytoplasmic determinants __________. (p. 412)

are coded for by maternal genes
act by binding to a plasma protein receptor that then initiates a signal-transduction pathway
are coded for by paternal genes
are carried to the ovum by the sperm
are coded for by embryonic genes


18.  

A complete fate map, which shows the cell lineages of the somatic cells of an adult organism, has been developed for __________. (p. 405)

D. rerio
H. sapiens
C. elegans
D. melanogaster
M. musculus


19.  

Instead of developing a head and a tail, a Drosophila embryo develops two tails. This is most likely due to _____. (p. 414)

apoptosis
a mutation in an operon
a failure involving post-transcriptional modification of mRNA
a mutation in a maternal effect gene
destruction of the RNA polymerase molecules responsible for the transcription of genes that encode headness


20.  

Cytoplasmic determinants encoded by __________ genes are present in unfertilized Drosophilia eggs. (p. 415)

homeotic
segment-polarity
segmentation
pair-rule
egg-polarity


21.  

The bicoid gene of fruit flies is a type of __________ gene. (p. 415)

segment-polarity
maternal effect
pair-rule
gap
homeotic


22.  

Which of the following sequences of gene expression is correct for a developing fruit fly? (p. 415)

egg-polarity genes, segmentation genes, homeotic genes
egg-polarity genes, segment-polarity genes, gap genes, pair-rule genes, homeotic genes
maternal effect genes, egg-polarity genes, bicoid gene, segmentation genes
segmentation genes, egg-polarity genes, homeotic genes
homeotic genes, egg-polarity genes, segmentation genes


23.  

A homeotic gene does which of the following? (p. 417)

It serves as the ultimate control for the establishment of developmental polarity.
It regulates the expression of groups of other genes during development.
It represses the histone proteins that package eukaryotic DNA.
It helps splice mRNA after transcription.
It inactivates one of the X chromosomes in a female mammal.


24.  

A gene that determines the type of structure that develops on a particular segment of a fruit fly is a __________ gene. (p. 417)

segment-polarity
maternal effect
pair-rule
gap
homeotic


25.  

When out for a walk with a friend you come across a grasshopper whose thorax bears two pairs of legs and one pair of antennae (a grasshopper usually has anntennae on its head). Displaying your considerable knowledge of animal development, you explain to your friend that a possible cause of this unusual situation would be a mutation in a __________ gene. (p. 417)

ced
segmentation
pair-rule
homeotic
egg-polarity


26.  

The highly conserved segment of homeotic genes is the _____. (p. 417)

homeobox
bicoid
ced-3
morphogen
TATA box


27.  

The similarity of the homeobox in many different kinds of organisms is evidence _____. (p. 417)

of convergent evolution
of analogy
that it is not responsive to natural selection
of its recent origin
of the common ancestry of different life forms


28.  

During development, which of the following is the first thing that happens when an inducer acts on target cells? (p. 419)

A transcription factor acts on the DNA.
The inducer binds to the DNA.
A new protein is made in the target cell.
A specific gene is transcribed.
The inducer binds to a receptor.


29.  

If not for apoptosis, you would _____. (p. 420)

be immortal
have webbed fingers and toes
be unable to avoid getting cancer
never get cancer
have too few cells


30.  

If the anchor cell is destroyed, C. elegans will fail to develop a(n) __________. (p. 419)

epidermis
vulva
dorsal-ventral axis
nervous system
anterior-posterior axis


31.  

Apoptosis __________. (p. 420)

is regulated by the bicoid gene
is programmed cell death
is regulated by cytoplasmic determinants
always has adverse effects on development
causes the development of cancer


32.  

In C. elegans the gene that initiates the cascade that results in apoptosis is the __________ gene. (p. 420)

fasciated
bicoid
homeobox
ced-9
myoD


33.  

Which of the following genes does NOT encode a protein that plays a role in animal development? (p. 421)

bicoid
maternal effect genes
fasciated
ced-3
all of these genes are involved in animal development


34.  

In plants, the structures that develop from meristems depend on the expression of ______ genes. (p. 422)

organ-identity
egg-polarity
homeobox
chimera
L3


35.  

The development of plants is similar to the development of animals in that both depend on __________; it's different in that plants are more dependent on __________. (p. 421)

cell signaling ... external environmental cues
transcriptional regulation ... cell signaling
cytoplasmic determinants ... induction
cell signaling ... transcriptional regulation
differing planes of cytokinesis ... homeotic genes


36.  

The fasciated gene is an example of a gene that determines the __________. (p. 421)

anterior-posterior axis
death of a cell
number of organs a flower will have
organ that develops from a particular region of meristem
expression of cytoplasmic determinants

   



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