Chapter Quiz

Bird guides once listed the myrtle warbler and Audubon's warbler as distinct species that lived side by side in parts of their ranges. However, recent books show them as eastern and western forms of a single species, the yellow-rumped warbler. Apparently, the myrtle warbler and Audubon's warbler _____. (p. 465)

live in the same areas
successfully interbreed and produce fertile offspring
are almost identical in appearance
are merging to form a single species
live in different places


According to the "biological species" concept, what is a species? (p. 465)

a population that interbreeds and produces fertile offspring
a population that is physically able to mate even if there are no offspring or the offspring is infertile
a population with a distinct fossil record
a clone of genetically identical organisms
a cluster of organisms that have a lineage of descent


Imagine a scenario in which part of a population of South American finches is blown by a storm onto an island far offshore and manages to survive and reproduce there for a period of 10,000 years. After that period, a climate change results in lower sea levels and the reconnection of the island with the mainland. Members of the formerly isolated island finch population can now interact freely with members of the original mainland population. Which of the following observations would, by itself, lead you to conclude unequivocally that the island finch population had evolved into a distinct species? (p. 467)

The island birds all have red feathers, but the mainland birds have only green feathers.
Individuals from the different populations sometimes mate with each other, but all of the resulting eggs are sterile.
Individuals from the different populations seem to mate freely with each other, and the resulting offspring mate freely with either island birds or mainland birds.
Individuals from the different populations feed on the same kinds of seeds in the same habitats and frequently direct courtship behavior toward members of the other population.
Hybrid offspring of matings between individuals from the two populations do not look like either parent.


Which one of the following conditions is necessary for speciation to occur? (p. 465)

reproductive isolation
sympatric allopatry
adaptive radiation
mass extinction
interbreeding among neighboring populations


For which one of the following groups would the biological definition of species be LEAST useful? (p. 468)

pine trees
asexually reproducing organisms


According to the "biological species" concept (that is, our definition of "species"), members of different species _____. (p. 465)

look different from each other
live in different geographic areas
do not mate successfully under natural conditions
speak different languages
belong to different political parties


Each species has a closed gene pool because _____. (p. 465)

no gene lifeguard is on duty
each parent contributes only half of each offspring's genes
each species is reproductively isolated
different species can interbreed freely
lions and tigers can hybridize in captivity


The biological species concept CANNOT be applied to organisms that _____. (p. 468)

have similar phenotypes
breed in different habitats
reproduce only asexually
are sympatric
all of the above


Imagine that part of a population of flies is blown from the California coast to an offshore island. The island flies have no contact with the mainland flies for 10,000 years. Then an earthquake rearranges the landscape and the island is rejoined to the mainland. The former island flies can now mingle freely with the mainland flies. If attempts at mating between flies from the two groups are successful and the resulting baby flies grow up strong and healthy and have offspring of their own, you could conclude that _________. (p. 465)

over the past 10,000 years, a single species had split into two species
over the past 10,000 years, effective isolating mechanisms had evolved
over the past 10,000 years, no speciation occurred in these flies
there is insufficient information available to determine how many species of flies are now present
flies will mate no matter what


Lake Victoria, in Africa, is home to a group of related fishes known as cichlids. Many of these fishes are similar in appearance but have different feeding habits. What is the best method for scientists to determine conclusively whether the fish are members of a population that has a lot of variation or members of entirely different species? (p. 465)

interbreeding them to see if they produce fertile offspring
studying the fossil record
sequencing DNA, because the DNA of members of the same species should be identical
doing studies on comparative anatomy, especially looking for homologous structures
all of these must be done to determine if a single population or different species are present


Three species of frogs—Rana pipiens, Rana clamitans, and Rana sylvatica—all mate in the same ponds, but they pair off correctly because they have different calls. This is a specific example of a _____ barrier, called _______ . (p. 466)

prezygotic barrier ... behavioral isolation
postzygotic ... hybrid breakdown
prezygotic ... temporal isolation
postzygotic ... behavioral isolation
prezygotic ... gametic isolation


Which of the following reproductive barriers actually prevents individuals of different species from mating with each other? (p. 466)

hybrid inviability
hybrid sterility
gametic isolation
hybrid breakdown
behavioral isolation


Bullock's oriole and the Baltimore oriole are closely related, but are they of the same species? To find out, you could see whether they _____. (p. 465)

sing similar songs
look alike
live in the same areas
have the same number of chromosomes
successfully interbreed


Sometimes two quite different populations interbreed to a limited extent, so that it is difficult to say whether they are clearly separate species. This does not worry biologists much because it _____. (p. 470)

is quite rare
is true for almost every species
supports the theory of punctuated equilibrium
may indicate that the formation of a new species is in progress
happens only among plants, not among animals


Two species of water lilies in the same pond do not interbreed because one blooms at night and the other during the day. The reproductive barrier between them is an example of _____. (p. 466)

temporal isolation
gametic isolation
mechanical isolation
hybrid breakdown
ecological isolation


Which of the following is an example of a postzygotic reproductive barrier? (p. 467)

One species of frog mates in April; another mates in May.
Two fruit flies of different species produce sterile offspring.
The sperm of a marine worm penetrate eggs of the same species only.
One species of flower grows in forested areas, another in meadows.
Two pheasant species perform different courtship dances.


Which of the following is an example of a postzygotic reproductive barrier? (p. 467)

One Ceanothus shrub lives on acid soil, another on basic soil.
Mallard and pintail ducks mate at different times of the year.
Two species of leopard frogs have different mating calls.
The hybrid offspring of two species of jimsonweeds always die before reproducing.
Pollen of one kind of tobacco cannot fertilize another kind.


Individuals of different species living in the same area may be prevented from interbreeding by responding to different mating dances. This is called _____. (p. 466)

habitat isolation
hybrid breakdown
mechanical isolation
temporal isolation
behavioral isolation


There are two groups of pine trees that appear to be very similar phenotypically and genotypically. However, one releases pollen in January, when the female structures of that group are receptive, and one in March. What kind of reproductive barrier is this? (p. 466)

temporal isolation
gametic isolation
mechanical isolation
hybrid inviability
a geographic barrier


Which of the following is an example of mechanical isolation? (p. 466)

A mule, the offspring of a horse and a donkey, is sterile.
A sponge excretes eggs and sperm into the water, but only gametes from the same species will fertilize each other.
A female moth produces a pheromone to which male moths are indifferent.
Salamanders living in high mountain streams do not mate with salamanders living in valley streams.
none of the above


Which of the following is NOT an example of a postzygotic barrier? (p. 467)

A hybrid fails to reach sexual maturity.
A hybrid fails to develop.
A hybrid fails to produce functional gametes.
The offspring of hybrids are infertile.
The two populations live in the same general area but not the same type of environment.


At which point in the adaptation of a population is it clear that speciation has occurred? (p. 466)

gene pool changes adapt a population to a local environment
gene pool changes establish reproductive barriers between two populations
an allopatric separation occurs
hybrid inviability occurs
all of the above


Three or four of the following conditions may lead to reproductive isolation between two species of similar physical appearance. Which one, if any, will NOT lead to reproductive isolation? If all the conditions will lead to reproductive isolation, choose answer (5). (p. 466)

Their geographic ranges do not overlap.
The mating behaviors of the two species are very different.
The gametes of the two species do not form a viable zygote when combined.
They have different habitat preferences.
All of the above conditions will lead to reproductive isolation.


Which one of the following is NOT an example of a prezygotic isolating mechanism? (p. 466)

different courtship behaviors between two individuals
spontaneous abortion of an embryo
a geographic barrier between two organisms
incompatible sex organs between two individuals
being reproductively active during different seasons


According to the fossil record, what is the average length of time that successful species survive? (p. 476)

3 billion years
50,000 years
250,000 years
5million years
20 million years


Lake Malawi, in the African Rift Valley, is home to more than a hundred species of cichlid fishes, each with slightly different diets and habits. All these fishes probably evolved from one ancestor, making them an example of _____. (p. 474)

sympatric speciation
hybrid breakdown
adaptive radiation
punctuated equilibrium


Biologists have found more than 500 species of fruit flies on the various Hawaiian Islands, all apparently descended from a single ancestor species. This example illustrates _____. (p. 471)

temporal isolation
adaptive radiation
hybrid breakdown
meiotic failure


Speciation is likely to occur in a population that has become allopatric if _____. (p. 469)

both gene pools are large and exhibit sufficient diversity of alleles
it is a species of plant only; allopatric speciation does not occur in animals
at least one of the gene pools is small
nonrandom mating does not occur
some individuals live in fresh water while others remain on land


Which of the following organisms is most likely to be subject to allopatric speciation? (p. 469)

whales of the same species on each side of the ocean
pine trees in Alaska and pine trees in New Brunswick
mountain lions in the canyons of Wyoming and in the canyons of Utah
fruit flies on bananas and fruit flies on oranges
bacteria in a hospital and bacteria in a nursery


Which of the following is NOT an example of adaptive radiation? (p. 470)

bony fish fitting into all areas of the ocean and fresh water
insects adapting to every land environment
speciation of finches into each Galápagos island environment
the few species of roundworms existing virtually everywhere in the world
placental mammals replacing reptiles and earlier mammals in their niches


According to the punctuated equilibrium model of evolution _____. (p. 475)

the tempo of evolution comprises abrupt episodes of speciation among long periods of equilibrium
isolated species changing over a few thousand generations represent graduated equilibrium, not punctuated equilibrium
polyploidy is not a mechanism of punctuated equilibrium
intermediate forms do not leave fossil records
none of the above


The existence in North America of numerous "species pairs" of similar but distinct species with distinct geographic ranges is taken to be indirect evidence of _____. (p. 469)

numerous sympatric speciation events
numerous allopatric speciation events
numerous saintpatric speciation events
rapid phyletic (within lineage) change


In which of the following groups has sympatric speciation been most important? (p. 473)



Sympatric speciation by polyploidy was first discovered in the early 1900s by which of the following? (p. 473)

Jean Baptiste Lamarck
Charles Darwin
Richard Dawkins
Hugo de Vries
Oenothera lamarckiana


Which of the following is NOT a probable event in the evolution of a polyploid species? (p. 473)

hybridization of the two parent species
failure of meiosis in the resultant hybrid
sterility of triploid individuals
gametes forming by mitosis
mutation of cell cycle genes


Which of the following important crops is NOT polyploid? (p. 473)



Which one of the following conditions could, by itself, allow a polyploid mutant plant to give rise to new species? (p. 473)

The polyploid individual can self-fertilize to produce fertile, polyploid offspring.
The polyploid individual fails to reproduce.
The polyploid individual is larger and more vigorous than its parents.
The polyploid individual is on an isolated island.
The polyploid individual has diploid siblings.


If a new species of plant is to be produced by means of allopolyploidy from two parental species that are 2n = 4 and 2n = 8, how many chromosomes would you expect in the somatic cells of the new species? (p. 473)

none of the above


A new species can arise in a single generation _____. (p. 473)

through geographic isolation
in a very large population spread over a large area
if a change in chromosome number creates a reproductive barrier
if allopatric speciation occurs
according to the gradualist model of speciation


Comparison of fossils with living humans seems to show that there have been no significant physical changes in Homo sapiens in 30,000 to 50,000 years. What might an advocate of punctuated equilibrium say about this? (p. 475)

It is about time for humans to undergo a burst of change.
That is about how long we have been reproductively isolated.
It is impossible to see major internal changes by looking at fossils.
You would expect lots of changes in the skeleton in that time period.
Lack of change is consistent with the punctuated equilibrium model.


What is the major problem that biologists see in the gradualist model of evolution? (p. 475)

Big changes could never occur by a steady accumulation of smaller ones.
Populations do not adapt to the environment gradually.
Most fossil species appear suddenly in the fossil record without transitional forms.
This model does not fit Darwin's view of the origin of species.
Gradual changes would not be expected to be observed in rock strata.



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publishing as Benjamin Cummings